With President Biden - What will change in the immigration policy to America? - Trip and work

Sunday, 15 November 2020

With President Biden - What will change in the immigration policy to America?

Long before the United States tightened its borders to slow the spread of the new Coronavirus, President Donald Trump set out to reshape America's immigration system with nationalist and isolationist tendencies. Promises to crack down on illegal immigration and erect a wall along the Mexican border formed the cornerstone of his campaign in 2016. His Democratic rival in the November 3 election, former Vice President Joe Biden, embraced immigration as central to the national character of a country where 99% of citizens trace their roots back to Elsewhere.

1. What is Trump's problem with immigration?

Trump says that "illegal immigrants" - people who do not have the legal right to stay or remain in the United States, who are estimated at 11 million - "drain" government resources, are at risk of committing violent crimes and obtaining jobs from citizens. As for legal immigration, Trump argues that the system that regulates it - which relies largely on family ties and ensures that immigrants come from a variety of countries - attracts unwanted newcomers, including, as he famously put it, from "small countries," Like Haiti, El Salvador, and countries in Africa. He preferred immigrants from Norway.

2. Is he right?

Some economists say illegal immigration reduces work and wages for low-skilled workers, especially Hispanic Americans. Others challenge the argument and the data behind it. A number of studies have concluded that immigrants commit crimes at lower rates than native-born Americans. But Trump cites tales like the fatal shooting of a 32-year-old woman, Kate Steinel, in San Francisco in 2015 by an undocumented immigrant, a Mexican citizen with a criminal record. On legal immigration, scholars note that focusing on family ties criticized by Trump was a guiding consideration decades ago when Europeans, including Trump's predecessors, were the ones flocking to America.

3. What changes has Trump made?

It is a long list. In part by diverting approved funds for other purposes, the Trump administration has built about 300 miles (and the number) of long steel fencing along the 2,000-mile US-Mexico border, mostly as upgrades to existing barriers. Immigration was banned by citizens of 12 countries, eight of which are Muslim-majority, on the grounds that their governments do not share sufficient information about criminals or potential terrorists. Trump's "zero tolerance" policy on illegal border crossings has separated thousands of migrant children from their families before protests end the practice. Trump has extended waiting times for residency and citizenship applications and expanded the "public fee rule" that denies immigrants legal residency status if they rely on public assistance such as food stamps or Medicaid.

Trump previously suspended immigration to the United States temporarily in response to the pandemic. He ordered the end of the program that allowed so-called Dreamers - illegal immigrants brought into the United States as children - to stay and work in the United States (courts have discontinued this order). Trump has cracked down on US asylum policy. Towards immigrants from Central America who claim to face persecution at home.

4. Does the United States no longer grant asylum?

The rule change made immigrants eligible for asylum in the United States only if they first applied for asylum, where available, in a third country on their way to America. Another change prevented asylum seekers from staying in the United States while they were awaiting their claims, sending them to wait in Mexico. (The rule changes have been appealed in federal court.) As for the refugees, whom the United States identifies as those who have applied for asylum from outside the country, Trump has set the number that will be accepted in 2020 at 18,000; The target set in the year before taking office was 110,000.

5. What more does Trump want to do?

He has proposed reshaping legal immigration by adopting a system similar to that used by Australia and Canada, according to which applicants are accepted based on points for valuable skill, advanced education, or a plan to create jobs. Trump will end the diversity visa lottery, which allows people from countries underrepresented in the immigrant pool, such as Botswana and Malaysia. He wants to limit the number of immigrant visas granted to family members of US citizens and permanent residents - beneficiaries of what he calls "chain migration." But these changes require congressional approval, which has not passed a major immigration law since 1986, largely due to divisions between the two major political parties.

6. What would Biden do differently?

His plan calls for rolling back Trump's bans on certain countries, expanding what Trump has brought as general rules, and his new restrictions on asylum seekers and refugees. Biden says he will stop spending federal money expanding the US-Mexico border wall and direct the money instead toward "smart border enforcement efforts, such as investments in improving screening infrastructure at our ports of entry." He pledged to restore the protections for Dreamers, which were put in place when he was Vice President under Barack Obama, and to create a path for citizenship for those living in the United States illegally.